1. John Krige, “National Security and Academia. Regulating the International Circulation of Knowledge,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 70: 2 (2014), 42-52.
There has been an increase in constraints on Chinese nationals participating in unclassified basic research in the USA in diverse forums (conferences, university laboratories etc). This paper situates the curent debate in a history of tension between scientific openness and national security in the US since 1945, and highlights the ‘deemed export’ as one particularly controversial and contested site at which knowledge circulation between US and foreign nationals is regulated. For access to the published version, not freely available, click here
2. John Krige, “Regulating the ‘Academic Marketplace of Ideas’: Commercialization, Export Controls, and Counterintelligence,” Engaging Science, Technology and Society, 1 (2015), 1-24.
Two revolutions, not one, are transforming the research enterprise in American academia. One is the neoliberal commercialization of research. The other is the regulation of research by the national security state that was accelerated by the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and that focuses increasingly on the risk of sensitive knowledge leaking to China and other countries of concern. Commercialization temporarily restricts knowledge circulation to secure a patent for personal and institutional gain. Regulation controls the flow of knowledge to select foreign nationals using multiple instruments, including export controls, along with informal surveillance by the FBI. Ironically the neoliberal urge to roll back the state and commercialize research in a competitive global knowledge economy exposes the American academic research system to the risk of ‘industrial’ espionage and rolls out the regulatory apparatus of the national security state. Alongside offices of technology transfer on campus we now have offices of export control compliance. Faculty and graduate students have accommodated themselves to this new situation, even while they regret it; many are concerned by the challenge that it poses to academic freedom, intellectual dynamism and political openness. For a pdf click here
3. John Krige, “‘The Problem of Evil’ and Postwar Scientific Cooperation in Europe,” For Corine de France and Anne Kwaschik, eds, Science, Internationalization and the Cold War (Paris: Armand Colin)
This paper problematizes the almost complete absence of any reference to ‘the problem of evil’ in the actor’s accounts and historical analyses of the postwar reconstruction of technoscientific institutions in Western Europe. It emphasizes the emotional work and associated instiutional arranangements that were needed to establish CERN and ESO (European Southern Observatory) with West Germany as a member state. For a copy click here
4. John Krige: “Diplomacy (post-1945), Science and Technology and,” in Hugh R. Slotten, ed, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine and Technology (Oxford, 2014), 252-267.
Describes the many ways in which science and technology were wielded by the US as political weapons in the cold war, emphasizing that the quest for political leaderhsip and for scientific pre-eminence are mutually reinforcing drivers of American global reach. Organized by topics: periodization, leading, confronting, fighting, collaborating, modernization, ‘americanization’, symbolizing. For a pdf click here
5. John Krige, “The Birth of EMBO and the Difficult Road to EMBL,” Stud. In Hist. Phil. Bio. & Biomed. Sciences, 37 (2002), 547-564.
An analysis of the conflicting attitudes held by Kendrew and Waddington to establishing a European laboratory for molecular biology in the early 1960s, stressing that what was at stake between them cannot be reduced to the need, or not, to have large scientific research equipment as at CERN. For a pdf click here
6. John Krige, European Molecular Biology Organization/Laboratory (EMBO/EMBL), published online in June 2013 by Wiley here
Describes the ongoing opposition in the UK in the 1960s to John Kendrew’s plan to establish a European research facility for molecular biology.
7. John Krige, Review of Kiran Klaus Patel, “Provincilializing European Union”, in Contemporary European History 22:4 (2013), 649-673, on H-Diplo listserve, URL: http://h-diplo.org/reviews/PDF/AR466.pdf, published on 20 June 2014.
8. John Krige, ‘Soft Power and the UK’s Influence,’ written evidence submitted to the UK House of Lords Committee on Soft Power and Britain’s Influence
Defines the meaning of soft power and argues that the UK should lever its education and research in science and technology as instruments of soft power. For all written submissions selected for publication, For a pdf click here. My brief text is at pp. 401 – 403.
9. The Social, Environmental and Personal Costs of Cold War Competition Reviews in American History, 42:3 (2014), 505 – 512.
Review of Kate Brown, Plutopia, Scott Kaufman, Project Plowshare, Yanek Mieczkowski. Eisenhower’s Sputnik Moment, and Audra Wolfe, Competing with the Soviets, For a pdf click here